Japanese for beginners #3

Numbers to 100, times and how to ask questions

October 26, 2015 in Japanese for beginners

In the last two chapters the main topic was the Hiragana writing-system. This topic has now been completed and it is now possible to speak out all existing Japanese sounds and to formulate them in Japanese characters. For this reason, the use of Romaji will further on be avoided where possible. In this chapter we learn how to count to 100, how to do simple math and how to ask questions in Japanese.


Numbers from 11 to 100

11じゅういち (juuichi)
12じゅうに (juuni)
13じゅうさん (juusan)
14じゅうよん (juuyon)
15じゅうご (juugo)
16じゅうろく (juuroku)
17じゅうなな/じゅうしち (juunana / juushichi)
18じゅうはち (juuhachi)
19じゅうきゅう / じゅうく (juukyuu / juuku)
20にじゅう (nijuu)
21にじゅういち (nijuuichi)
22にじゅうに (nijuuni)
23にじゅうさん (nijuusan)
24にじゅうよん (nijuuyon)
25にじゅうご (nijuugo)
26にじゅうろく (nijuuroku)
30さんじゅう (sanjuu)
31さんじゅういち (sanjuuichi)
32さんじゅうに (sanjuuni)
33さんじゅうさん (sanjuusan)
34さんじゅうよん (sanjuuyon)
35さんじゅうご (sanjuugo)
40よんじゅう (yonjuu)
41よんじゅういち (yonjuuichi)
42よんじゅうに (yonjuuni)
43よんじゅうさん (yonjuusan)
50ごじゅう (gojuu)
51ごじゅういち (gojuuichi)
60ろくじゅう (rokujuu)
70ななじゅう (nanajuu)
80はちじゅう (hachijuu)
90きゅうじゅう (kyuujuu)
100ひゃく (hyaku)
EnglishJapanese [Kana (Romaji)]

Simple Math

Plus (+)ぷらす(purasu)
Minus (-)まいなす(mainasu)
Equals (=)は(wa)*
5 + 3 = 8ごぷらすさんははち。(go purasu san wa hachi.)
10 + 2 = 12じゅうぷらすにはじゅうに。(juu purasu ni wa juuni.)
8 - 7 = 1はちまいなすしちはいち。
16 - 1 + 28 = 43じゅうろくまいなすいちはにじゅうはち。
EnglishJapanese [Kana (Romaji)]
* in the Japanese Language the は is a particle that is used to indicate a X to Y reference. It is written as は but it is pronounced like a わ.

Ask questions

In the Japanese Language a question is expressed by ka (か) at the end of a sentence.

りゅうがくせいです。(I am) an international Student.
りゅうがくせいです (You are) an international Student?

Consider also the words inside the parenthesis. Subjects are often omitted in Japanese. It is common to derive from the context what subject is meant. Besides Yes/No-Questions like in the example, you are also able to ask open questions by using the word なん (what).

いま なんじ です か。
(Ima nanji desu ka)
What time is it now?
(いま) くじ です。
((Ima) kuji desu)
It is 9 o’clock
(Nansai desu ka)
How old are you?
(Juukyuu desu)
(I am) 19 years old.
(Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka)
What’s your phone number?
186の7343です。It is 186-7343.
(Tookyoo wa ima nanji desu ka)
What time is it in Tokyo?
(Gozen kuji desu)
It is 9 o’clock in the morning.
(Gogo yoji han desu)
It is half past four in the afternoon.

If we want to call someone by his name while asking how old he/she is then the particle は can be used again. A sentence could be like this: まりあ さんは なんさいですか (Maria san wa nansai desu ka) How old are you, Maria?
の(no) is another particle in Japanese Language. の is used to connect two nouns. Example: たけしさんのでんわばんごう(Takeshi san no denwa bangoo) Takeshi’s Phone Number.
In case of phone numbers の is used to separate regional area codes.

What is it?なんですか (nan desu ka)
What time is it?なんじですか (nanji desu ka)
How old (are you)?(あなたは)なんさいですか (anata wa nansai desu ka)
How old (am i)?(わたしは)なんさいですか (watashi wa nansai desu ka)
EnglishJapanese [Kana (Romaji)]


One o’clockいちじ
Two o’clockにじ
Three o’clockさんじ
Four o’clockよじ
Five o’clockごじ
Six o’clockろくじ
Seven o’clockしちじ
Eight o’clockはちじ
Nine o’clockくじ
Ten o’clockじゅうじ
Eleven o’clockじゅういちじ
Twelve o’clockじゅうにじ
Half pastはん
Half past twoいちじはん
Half past fiveよじはん
Half past nineくじはん
EnglishJapanese [Kana (Romaji)]

Vocabulary #3

It isです
How do you doはじめまして
Nice to meet youどおぞよろしく oder よろしくおねがいします
I am done (after a meal)ごちそうさま
High schoolこうこう
EnglishJapanese [Kana (Romaji)]


Until the next chapter the vocabulary should be learned (as usual) and you should be able to ask about the age, the time and the phone number in Japanese. Also simple math should be possible in Japanese quickly. The Genki Workbook is a good source for practical exercises regarding this tasks. However, if that is not available to you you can simply create your own questions and answer them.

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