Japanese for beginners #6

u-, ru- and irregular verb conjugation in the dictionary and present forms; the particle を as well as weekdays and month

January 10, 2016 in Japanese for beginners

Contents

Verb Conjugation

As in many other languages japanese verbs can be conjugated in different ways. In this chapter we will learn three forms: the dictionary form, the affirmative present form and the negative present form.

Verb stemたべ (tabe)いく (ik)
Dictionary Formたべ (taberu -> eat)いく (iku -> go)
Present Affirmativeたべます (tabemasu)いきます (ikimasu)
Present Negativたべません (tabemasen)いきません (ikimasen)
ru-Verbu-Verb

The conjugation is done following a fixed rule. It is different for ru-verbs and u-verbs.

ru-Verbs

Ru-Verbs are named this way because the dictionary form is created by adding a “ru” to the verbs stem (In case of the verb for eating the stem is tabe and the dictionary form therefore is taberu). In the present forms ru will be replaced with mas or masen.

Examples for ru-Verbs
みる (see)みますみません
ねる (sleep)ねますねません
たべる (eat)たべますたべません
おきる (get up)おきますおきません
Dict. FormPresent - AffirmativePresent - Negativ

u-Verbs

In case of u-Verbs the suffix “u” is added to the stem. In the present forms these verbs are conjugated with imas or imasen.

Examples for u-Verbs
よむ (read)よみますよみません
はなす (talk)はなしますはなしません
のむ (drink)のみますのみません
きく (hear)ききますききません
いく (walk)いきますいきません
かえる (return)かえりますかえりません
Dict. FormPresent - AffirmativePresent - Negativ

Irregular Verbs

Besides “u” and “ru” verbs there are some verbs that are irregular. For example “suru” and “kuru”. For these verbs there is no rule that applies to them so you have to learn by hard how to conjugate them right.

Irregular Verbs
する (do sth.)しますしません
くる (come)きますきません
Dict. FormPresent - AffirmativePresent - Negativ

The Particle を

The Particle を (“wo” but pronounced like “o”) will be used when something is directly being done or is directly involved in some activity.

Examples:

I drink coffee.コーヒーのみます。
((watashi wa) koohee o nomimasu.)
I watch TV.テレビみます。
(terebi o mimasu.)
I listen to music.おんがくききます。
(ongaku o kikimasu.)
I don’t drink coffee.コーヒーのみません。
((watashi wa) koohee o nomimasen.)

Days

Mondayげつようび
Tuesdayかようび
Wednesdayすいよび
Thursdayもくようび
Fridayきんようび
Saturdayどようび
Sundayにちようび
EnglishJapanese

Month

Januaryいちがつ
Februaryにがつ
Marchさんがつ
Aprilしがつ
Mayごがつ
Juneろくがつ
Julyしちがつ
Augustはちがつ
Septemberきゅがつ
Octoberじゅうがつ
Novemberじゅういちがつ
Decemberじゅうにがつ
EnglishJapanese

Vocabulary #6

Movieえいが
Musicおんがく
TVテレビ (てれび)
Tennisテニス (てにす)
Sportsスポーツ (すぽうつ)
Magazine / Boulevard Magazineざっし
Breakfastあさごはん
Lunchひるごはん
Dinnerばんごはん
Waterみず
Whineおさけ
Teaおちゃ
Coffeeコーヒー (こうひい)
At home / Houseうちゃ / いえ
This morningあさ
This eveningこんばん
Tomorrowあした
The day after tomorrowあさって
Weekendじゅうまつ
Whenいつ
Every dayまいにち
Every nightまいばん
to goいく
to returnかえる
to goくる
to do sth.する
to studyべんきょうする
to listenきく
to speakはなす
to readよむ
to sleepねる
to get upおきる
to eatたべます
to drinkのむ
sometimesときどき
usuallyたいてい
often, muchよく
a littleちょっと
not at allぜんぜん
butでも
earlyはやい
What’s .. ? What is with … ?どうですか
Monthがつ
Day of the weekようび
EnglishJapanese

Exercise

  • Learn the vocabulary -> Check!
  • Learn how to conjugate -> Check!
  • Learn the use of the particle を -> Check!
In the next chapter we will learn a couple of more particles. This will enable us to create more complex japanese sentences!




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